COUNTY SOCIAL, BUSINESS AND ECONOMIC TRENDS IN HAWAII 1990 - 2013
From DBEDT, December, 2014
This report presents annual statistics on social, business and economic trends for the State and each of its four counties, from 1990 to 2013.
Introduction and Overview
Between 1990 and 2013, Hawaii resident population grew at an average annual rate of 1.0 percent. The City & County of Honolulu experienced slower growth at 0.7 percent a year, Hawaii and Maui counties grew at 2.0 percent, while Kauai County grew 1.3 percent per year. Due to the difference in growth, by 2013, Honolulu County accounted for 70.0 percent of the state resident population, down from 75.3 percent in 1990. Hawaii County gained population share from 10.9 percent in 1990 to 13.6 percent in 2013. Maui County also gained population share, from 9.1 percent in 1990 to 11.4 percent in 2013. Kauai County’s population share increased slightly from 4.6 percent in 1990 to 5.0 percent in 2013.
Civilian labor force grew slower than the resident population. The statewide labor force increased by 97,800 persons from 1990 to 2013, or 0.7 percent annual average increase. Honolulu County experienced the slowest increase at 0.5 percent a year. Hawaii County grew at the fastest rate or 1.5 percent per year, followed by Maui County at 1.3 percent, and Kauai County at 0.9 percent a year.
There was an increase of 89,200 nonagricultural wage and salary jobs statewide during the 1990 to 2013 period. Honolulu County gained 45,000 jobs, or 1,950 jobs per year, followed by Maui County (21,300 jobs, or 950 jobs per year), Hawaii County (17,750 jobs, or 750 jobs per year), and Kauai County (4,800 jobs, or 200 jobs per year).
Over the 1990-2013 period the number of jobs in the statewide non-agricultural private sector increased at an average annual growth rate of 0.6 percent. In 2013, there was an average of 488,650 jobs. The average in Honolulu County was 354,450, for an annual average growth rate of 0.4 percent between 1990 and 2013. This growth rate is lower than the growth rate of total non-agricultural jobs and lower than the 0.5 percent rate for government jobs for Honolulu over the period. Maui County recorded 1.5 percent, Hawaii County 1.3 percent and Kauai County 0.7 percent.
It is interesting to note that there were structural changes in industry sectors among the counties during the past twenty-three years. Looking at industry sectors, all counties experienced decline in manufacturing jobs during the 1990-2013 period. Agriculture declined statewide and in all counties between 1990 and 2009, stayed the same or grew 2009 to 2010 but all grew in 2011. Due to the boom in construction activity in the mid-2000s, statewide construction jobs peaked in 2007 with 39,100 jobs. In 2008, construction jobs declined statewide by 1,250 from 2007, and further by 7,050 between 2008 and 2013. Compared with the job levels in 2010, only Honolulu showed a gain (100) in construction jobs in 2011, but all counties gained jobs in both 2012 and 2013.
The biggest increase in job count 1990 to 2013 was in Professional and Business Services – 29,400 jobs were added during the period. Honolulu County had the largest gain with 21,000 jobs, followed by Hawaii (3,650 jobs), Maui (3,600 jobs), and Kauai (1,500 jobs).
Total statewide personal income increased at an average annual rate of 4.1 percent between 1990 and 2013. As a standard of living measure, per capita personal income increased an average 3.1 percent per year at the state level. All counties generally experienced similar nominal rates of change during this period but the state and all counties except Honolulu reflected a decline in total and per capita in 2009. Per capita personal income for Honolulu County was 8 percent higher than the state average in 2013 while per capita personal income for all other counties was between 75.9 percent and 86.8 percent of the state average. Hawaii County had the lowest per capita personal income over the period.
Taxable retail sales in the state totaled $29.7 billion in 2013, representing an annual average increase rate of 3.7 percent between 1990 and 2013. Honolulu County had the largest annual average increase in retail sales at 3.9 percent, Maui County at 3.2 percent, followed by Kauai County at 1.9 percent and Hawaii County at 1.8 percent during the period. Statewide taxable services tax bases grew an average of 5.1 percent annually to $13.3 billion in 2013 with Kauai County growing the fastest at 5.8 percent, Maui County at 5.6 percent, Hawaii County at 5.1 percent, and Honolulu County at 5.0 percent annually.
Reflecting construction activities in the state, the contracting tax base declined between 1991 and 1995, in 1997 and 1999, and 2008 to 2010. As compared to 2007, contracting tax base in Honolulu was 26.8 percent lower in 2010. Other three counties experienced more severe drops during the 2008-2010 recession period. With recovery of construction activities from 2011, contracting tax base in Honolulu grew (6.0 percent) in 2011, all counties grew in 2012 (ranging from 4.6 percent for Kauai to 21.8 percent for Honolulu), and in 2013 all counties but Kauai grew. In 2013, the contracting tax base totaled $7.3 billion, with $5.98 billion in Honolulu.
As with the increase in Hawaii’s visitor industry, the value of hotel room sales in the state (hotel rentals tax base) reached $4.1 billion in 2013, representing a 158.7 percent increase from 1990. Kauai County at 172.5 percent, Hawaii County at 160.4 percent, and Honolulu at 159.6 percent, followed by Maui County at 148.8 percent, The net individual income tax revenues, from 1990 to 2013, grew the most in Hawaii County (224.6 percent), followed by Maui County (154.4 percent), Kauai County (101.8 percent) and Honolulu (70.5 percent).
Readers should note that, though reported by county, tax base and tax revenue data are based on place of filing and do not necessarily represent the place of business. For example, the headquarters in Honolulu may file taxes for all its businesses on the neighbor islands. The tax base and revenue data would therefore be recorded under the City & County of Honolulu. Tax data by place of business are not available.
Visitor arrivals by air fluctuated between 6.0 to 6.9 million until 2005 when arrivals first broke the 7.0 million mark. Statewide arrivals in 2005 were 7.4 million, reached a historical level of 7.5 million in 2006, remained at 7.5 million in 2007, and slipped to 6.7 million in 2008, and to 6.4 million in 2009, rose to 6.9 million in 2010, and rebounded to 7.2 million in 2011, surged to 7.9 million in 2012 and reached a record-high of 8.0 million in 2013.
On a typical day in 2013, there were 202,876 visitors in the state. In other words, for every eight persons in the state, one was a visitor. In Honolulu County the ratio was eleven to one, Hawaii County was seven to one, Kauai and Maui counties were four to one. During 2013, Honolulu County had the highest number of visitors a day at 96,054, followed by Maui County at 54,233, Hawaii County at 29,255, and Kauai County at 23,334. All counties experienced increases in the daily visitor census between 1990 and 2013.
The number of visitor accommodation units declined (1,148 units) in Honolulu County between 1990 and 2013, while increasing in all other counties. In 2013, the number of statewide visitor units was 2,627 higher than that in 1990. Hawaii County added 1,869 units, Maui County gained 777 units, and Kauai County increased 1,129 units between 1990 and 2013.
Statewide hotel occupancy rate marked the highest level at 81.1 percent in 2005. It declined since then to hit 64.8 percent in 2009, the lowest level since 1990. With a fast recovery in Hawaii tourism market started in 2010, statewide hotel occupancy increased again to 76.2 percent in 2013. Oahu and Neighbor Islands showed quite different occupancy rates. While occupancy on Oahu was as high as 83.7 percent in 2013, occupancy on Neighbor Islands was much lower. Maui County showed the highest occupancy among three counties at 72.0 percent in 2013, followed by Kauai County (69.0 percent) and Hawaii County (60.8 percent).
In 2013, the average daily hotel room rate was the highest in Maui County at $277.61 a night due to the larger number of luxury hotel rooms. Honolulu County had the lowest average room rate at $209.01 a night. The statewide room rate increased by 122.8 percent between 1990 and 2013; the largest rise was in Kauai County at 144.7 percent, followed by Honolulu County at 124.2 percent, Maui County at 114.9 percent, and Hawaii County at 69.7 percent.
The private building permit cumulative value for the 1990 to 2013 period was $50.2 billion statewide. 49.3 percent of the permit value was residential construction, 18.5 percent commercial construction, and the remaining 32.1 percent additions and alterations. In dollar value terms, 55.1 percent of the permits were issued for Honolulu County, 21.1 percent in Hawaii County, 16.6 percent in Maui County, and 7.2 percent in Kauai County. Note: since late 2001, only Kauai residential permits have been available for compilation.
According to the surveys conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau, Hawaii had 31,496 business establishments with payrolls in 2012. That figure represents an increase of 2,183 establishments over 1990. Maui County had the largest increase in business establishments at 1,104, followed by Hawaii County at 526, Kauai County at 429, and Honolulu County at 44. Establishments classified as statewide increased by 100 over the 1990-2012 period.
Of the 36,834 private employers in the state in 2013, Oahu accounted for 67.3 percent, Hawaii 12.9 percent, Maui 13.7 percent, and Kauai 6.0 percent. All counties experienced increases in number of private employers between 1990 and 2013. About 95 percent of private employers hired fewer than 50 employees across the state and across the period.
With the closure of sugar plantations on Oahu and the Big Island and the reduction in plantations on Maui and Kauai, the value of sugar sales dropped to $44.2 million in 2008 and 2009, about 20.7 percent of the sales value in 1990. Due to statistical reporting limitations, separate enumeration of fresh pineapple and diversified agriculture sales by county is not available beyond 2004.
Water consumption data statewide showed an increase of 4.9 billion gallons between 1990 and 2012 for an average annual increase of 7.0 percent. As compared with 1990, water consumption in 2011 increased in Hawaii and Maui counties but Statewide and in Honolulu and Kauai counties consumption decreased. As compared to 2011, consumption in 2012 decreased by 717 million gallons with Honolulu and Kauai counties registering decreases of 1.1 billion and 178 million gallons respectively. This compares to small increases in consumption in Maui (304 million gallons) and Hawaii (267 million gallons) and reflecting competing forces of population growth and conservation.
Statewide electricity sales increased by 27.3 percent between 1990 and 2007, an average 1.4 percent increase annually during the period. All counties experienced decreases in electricity sale from 2008 though, with Maui County registering the biggest drop of 11.3 percent, followed by Honolulu County (10.6 percent), Kauai (7.6 percent), and Hawaii County (7.5 percent) between 2007 and 2013.
Of the registered voters in the state, about 61.9 percent of them actually went to vote in the 2012 general election. That was greater than the 55.8 percent in 2010 but lower than the 65.8 percent in 2008. The voting rates across the counties are similar at about 61-63 percent in 2012, except Maui where the voting rate was 56.8 percent in 2012.
Statewide hospital beds were relatively stable averaging about 2,560 beds between 1990 and 2010. Honolulu and Kauai counties experienced a slight decrease of 29 and 14 respectively, while Hawaii and Maui counties gained 21 and 63 beds, respectively from 1990 to 2010.
In 2013, there were a total of 1,341,152 vehicles registered in the state. From 1990 to 2013, the average increase in registered vehicles was 19,655 per year, with Honolulu at 10,253 per year, Hawaii County at 4,252 per year, Maui County at 3,653 per year, and 1,497 per year for Kauai.
There was an average of 69,800 crime cases a year statewide during the 1990-2005 period. However, it decreased by 25 percent to 52,900 cases during the 2006-2010 period. With a further decrease in crime cases in 2011 and 2012, there were 46,797 cases total in 2012. Honolulu accounted for 67.9 percent of the state total in 2012 at 31,781, followed by Maui at 6,414 per year (13.7 percent of the state total), Hawaii County at 5,799 (12.4 percent of state total), Kauai County at 2,803 (6.0 percent).
More comprehensive statistics at the single year level can be found in the State of Hawaii Data Book, published annually by the Hawaii State Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism at http://hawaii.gov/dbedt/info/economic/databook/
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