Thursday, December 12, 2019
Hawai'i Free Press

Current Articles | Archives

Wednesday, October 16, 2013
Supreme Court Asked: Who Owns Geothermal Rights in Hawaii?
By Robert Thomas @ 6:29 PM :: 4164 Views :: Energy, Land Use
New HAWSCT Cert Application: State Not Required To Preserve Encumbrances In Land Court Registration

by Robert Thomas, InverseCondemnation.com October 16, 2013

Here's one we've been meaning to post for a while, if only because it presents a fascinating issue about the nature of Torrens title (so much so that we filed an amicus brief on behalf of Pacific Legal Foundation in the Intermediate Court of Appeals).

The State of Hawaii has filed an Application for a writ of certiorari, asking the Hawaii Supreme Court to review for grave error the ICA's opinion in In re Trustees Under the Will of the Estate of James Campbell, No. 30006 (June 13, 2013).

In that case, the ICA held that the intent of the land court registration provisions in Chapter 501 of the Hawaii Revised Statutes is to "preserve the integrity of titles," slip op. at 11, and "a certificate of title is unimpeachable and conclusive except as otherwise provided by law." Id.  That seems straightfoward enough, as any dirt lawyer in a state with a Torrens registration system knows. These systems, in which the state guarantees indefeasable title to the rights and interests reflected in the register, remain active in a few states, including Hawaii (more background here). 

Thus, the ICA held that "[b]y virtue of the Land Court registration of the Subject Property, the Trustees held, and subsequent good faith purchasers of the Subject Property for value hold, the Subject Property free from all encumbrances, except for encumbrances noted on the certificate of title." Id.

We hold that the Original [1938] Decree and the Original Certificate of Title extinguished the express government reservations of mineral or metallic mines set forth in Royal Patent No. 5616, Royal Patent No. 5693, and Grant No. 550 and also extinguished any implicit reservation in the Kamehameha III deed.

Slip op. at 8. Again, seems straightfoward enough: an interest now claimed that is not reflected in a Land Court decree, does not exist. Res judicata, etc. etc.

The rub is that here, it is the State of Hawaii that is claiming the interest, the right to mineral and metallic mines (including geothermal rights) on several large parcels of Land Court registered property on the north shore of Oahu. The State is claiming these rights even though they are not reflected in the registered title, confirmed to Campbell in the 1930's after Land Court litigation in which the State's predecessor, the Territory of Hawaii, appeared and asserted other interests.

The case arose when Campbell submitted a petition to the Land Court in 2009 to consolidate and subdivide land it owns on Oahu. The land was registered and had been confirmed to Campbell by the Land Court in 1938. A portion of the land derived from a royal patent in which the government reserved mineral and metallic mining rights, and another parcel had no reservation at all. The State's predecessor (the Territory of Hawaii) appeared in the Land Court and asserted several claims, but did not claim mineral or mining rights or a flowage easement. The Land Court eventually confirmed fee simple title in Campbell and noted that it was subject to various encumbrances, but this list did not include a reservation of mineral or mining rights or a flowage easement in favor of the Territory.

Flash forward seventy years, and the when Campbell's 2009 petition came before the Land Court, the State appeared and claimed that Campbell's title is subject to the State's ownership of "all mineral and metallic mines of every kind or description on the property, including geothermal rights," and is subject to a flowage easement in favor of the State. The State argued that despite the 1938 Land Court registration, Campbell's title never included interests which the State had reserved, even though the State's predecessor had appeared in that case, and Campbell's title had been confirmed free of all unregistered interests. The Land Court rejected the State's arguments and held that its claim of mineral rights was extinguished by the 1938 judgment, and that the title was also not subject to a flowage easement.

The State's appeal to the ICA argued that the original grantor of the land -- the King, in his individual capacity -- did not own the mineral rights, so therefore could not have conveyed those rights to Campbell, and that the government's reservation of mineral rights is "self-effectuating" whether noted in the land grant or not. The ICA rejected the State's arguments and affirmed the Land Court.

Here's the Question Presented by the State's cert application:

Did the Intermediate Court of Appeals (ICA) gravely err when it denied Respondent-Appellant-Petitioner State of Hawaii's (State or Territory) claim of ownership of all mineral and metallic mines, including geothermal rights, in the Subject Property by incorrectly concluding that the 1938 Land Court registration of the Subject Property by the Trustees Under the Will and of the Estate of James Campbell, Deceased (Trustees) extinguished the State's ownership of minerals and metallic mines because the Territory's reservation was not noted as an encumbrance in the Original Decree or the Original Certificate of Title, even though: (a) the Territory owned the minerals and metallic mines on the Subject Property pursuant to Royal Patent No. 5616, Royal Patent No. 5693, Grant No. 550, and the Deed of Kamehameha III to Charles Gordon Hopkins; (b) the Trustees failed to disclose the State's ownership of minerals and metallic mines as an encumbrance in their application for Land Court registration; (c) Land Court registration cannot create and interest in land; and (d) extinguishing the State's ownership of minerals and metallic mines would result in manifest injustice.

As we noted here, we thought the ICA got it right. So we think that the Supreme Court should not accept cert.

We'll see, however. And if and when Campbell files its Brief in Opposition, we'll post it.

Application for Writ of Certiorari by the State of Hawaii, In re Application of the Trustees Under the Will...

Links

TEXT "follow HawaiiFreePress" to 40404

Register to Vote

2aHawaii

808 Silent Majority

808 State Update AM940

ABCDEFG Blog

ACA Signups Hawaii

ACCE

ALEC

Alliance Defending Freedom

Aloha Life Advocates

Aloha Pregnancy Care Center

American Council of Trustees and Alumni

American Mothers of Hawaii

AMVETS-Hawaii

AntiPlanner

Antonio Gramsci Reading List

A Place for Women in Waipio

Audit The Rail

Ballotpedia Hawaii

Better Hawaii 

Blaisdell Memorial Project

Broken Trust 

Build More Hawaiian Homes Working Group

CAFR Hawaii

Castaway Conservative

Children's Alliance Hawaii

Children's Rights Institute

ChinaTownWatch.com

Christian Homeschoolers of Hawaii

Citizens for Recall

Cliff Slater's Second Opinion

Coffee Break

CSIS Pacific Forum

DAR Hawaii

DeedySupport.com

DVids Hawaii

E Hana Kakou Kelii Akina

E Māua Ola i Moku o Keawe

Farmers For Choice Hawaii

FIRE

Fix Oahu!

Follow the Money Hawaii

Frank in Hawaii

Front Page Magazine

Frontline: The Fixers

Genetic Literacy Project

Get Off Your Butts!

God, Freedom, America

Grassroot Institute

Habele.org

Hawaii Aganst Assisted Suicide

Hawaii Aquarium Fish Report

Hawaii Aviation Preservation Society

Hawaii Catholic TV

Hawaii Christian Coalition

Hawaii Cigar Association

Hawaii Coalition Against Legalized Gambling

Hawaii ConCon Info

Hawaii Credit Union Watch

Hawaii Crime Victims' Rights

Hawaii Crop Improvement Association

Hawaii Debt Clock

Hawaii Defending Marriage

Hawaii Defense Foundation

Hawaii Families for Educational Choice

Hawaii Family Advocates

Hawaii Family Forum

Hawaii Farmers and Ranchers United

Hawaii Farmer's Daughter

Hawaii Federalist Society

Hawaii Federation of Republican Women

Hawaii Firearm Community

Hawaii Fishermen's Alliance

Hawaii Future Project

Hawaii Gathering of Eagles

Hawaii History Blog

Hawaii Homeschool Association

Hawaii Jihadi Trial

Hawaii March for Life

Hawaii Meth Project

Hawaii's Partnership for Appropriate & Compassionate Care

Hawaii Public Charter School Network

Hawaii Rifle Association

Hawaii Right to Life -- Big Island

Hawaii Right to Life -- Oahu

Hawaii Shield Law Coalition

Hawaii Shippers Council

Hawaii Smokers Alliance

Hawaii State Data Lab

Hawaii Together

Heritage Foundation

HI Coalition Against Legalized Gambling

HIEC.Coop 

HiFiCo

Hiram Fong Papers

Homeschool Legal Defense Hawaii

Honolulu Homeless Crisis

Honolulu Navy League

Honolulu Traffic

Horns of Jericho Blog

House Minority Blog

House Republican Caucus YouTube

HPACC

Hump Day Report

I Vote Hawaii

If Hawaii News

Imua TMT

Inouye-Kwock, NYT 1992

Inside the Nature Conservancy

Inverse Condemnation

Investigative Project on Terrorism

Iowa Meets Maui

Jackson v Abercrombie

Jihad Watch

Judgepedia Hawaii

July 4 in Hawaii

Kahle v New Hope

Kakaako Cares

Kau TEA Party

Kauai Co GOP

Keep Hawaii's Heroes

KeyWiki

Land and Power in Hawaii

Legislative Committee Analysis Tool

Lessons in Firearm Education

Lingle Years

Malulani Foundation

Managed Care Matters -- Hawaii

Malama Pregnancy Center of Maui

Mauna Kea Recreational Users Group

MentalIllnessPolicy.org

Middle East Forum--The Legal Project

Mililani Conservatives for Change

Military Home Educators' Network Oahu

Missile Defense Advocacy

MIS Veterans Hawaii

Muslim Brotherhood in America

NAMI Hawaii

NARTH

Natatorium.org

National Christian Foundation Hawaii

National Parents Org Hawaii

National Wind Watch

New Zeal

NFIB Hawaii News

No GMO Means No Aloha

Northwest Economic Policy Seminar

Not Dead Yet, Hawaii

Now What I Really Think

NRA-ILA Hawaii

Oahu Alternative Transport

ObamaCare Abortion Hawaii

Obookiah

OHA Lies

Opt Out Today

OurFutureHawaii.com

Pacific Aviation Museum

Patients Rights Council Hawaii

PEACE Hawaii

People vs Machine

Pritchett Cartoons 

Pro-GMO Hawaii

P.U.E.O.

RailRipoff.com

Rental by Owner Awareness Assn

Republican Party -- Hawaii State

Research Institute for Hawaii USA

Rick Hamada Show

RJ Rummel

Robotics Organizing Committee

Salvage The Rail

Save the Plastic Bag

School Choice in Hawaii

SenatorFong.com

SIFE Remington

SIFE W. Oahu 

Sink the Jones Act

Smart About Marijuana--Hawaii

St Marianne Cope

State Budget Solutions Hawaii

State Policy Network

Statehood for Guam

Tax Foundation of Hawaii

The Harriet Tubman Agenda

The Long War Journal

The Real Hanabusa

Time Out Honolulu

Truth About Trade & Technology - Hawaii

UCC Truths

Union Members Know Your Rights

US Tax Foundation Hawaii Info

Valor in the Pacific

VAREP Honolulu

Waagey.org

West Maui Taxpayers Association

What Natalie Thinks

Whole Life Hawaii

Yes2TMT